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PRD Class
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Dux Family
The Dux (double homeobox) family is complex. An unknown, and variable, number of human Dux sequences are part of a tandemly repeated 3.3 kb DNA element that has become incorporated into heterochromatin and some euchromation (Holland et al. 2007). Many Dux sequences are also part of repeated DNA, for example 'DUX4' sequences at the polymorphic D4Z4 locus at 4q35 linked to facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (Gabrië et al. 1999, Wijmenga et al. 1993). There are additional cluster of DUX sequences on human chromosomes 4, 10, Y and some dispersed loci (Zhong and Holland 2011). Most Dux sequences in euchromatin possess two tandem homeobox sequences, although some have lost one of the pair. Most the above sequences lack introns in the homeobox, and there is limited evidence for function through transcription and translation (although DUX4 sequences at the D4Z4 locus show sequence conservation and the orthologous gene cluster is transcribed in mouse; Clapp et al. 2007). True intron-containing Dux genes have been identified in the human genome, DUXA and DUXB (Booth and Holland 2007, Holland et al. 2007), while some other mammals have DUXC and DUXBL, though lost from human (Clapp et al. 2007). There are traces of a DUXBL pseudogene in humans (Leidenroth and Hewitt 2010; Zhong and Holland 2011). Mouse has lost DUXA, DUXB and DUXC. No Dux sequences are found in amphioxus or Drosophila.

Booth HAF, Holland PWH (2007) Gene 387:7-14.
Clapp J et al. (2007) Am J Hum Genet. 81: 264-279.
Gabriëls J et al. (1999) Gene 236:25-32.
Holland PWH, Booth HAF, Bruford EA (2007) BMC Biology 5:47.
Leidenroth A, Hewitt JE (2010) BMC Evol Biol 10:364.
Wijmenga C et al. (1993) Neuromusc Aborted 3:487-491.
Zhong YF, Holland PWH (2011) BMC Evol Biol 11: 169, 204.
Families List of Class PRD :
Loci in Dux of Human back to top..
DUX4double homeobox, 4DuxHuman 
Dux4l DuxHuman 
DUX4L10double homeobox 4 like 10DuxHuman 
DUX4L11double homeobox 4 like 11DuxHuman 
DUX4L12double homeobox 4 like 12DuxHuman 
DUX4L13double homeobox 4 like 13DuxHuman 
DUX4L14double homeobox 4 like 14DuxHuman 
DUX4L15double homeobox 4 like 15DuxHuman 
DUX4L16double homeobox 4 like 16DuxHuman 
DUX4L17double homeobox 4 like 17DuxHuman 
DUX4L18double homeobox 4 like 18DuxHuman 
DUX4L19double homeobox 4 like 19DuxHuman 
DUX4L2double homeobox 4 like 2DuxHuman 
DUX4L20double homeobox 4 like 20DuxHuman 
DUX4L3double homeobox 4 like 3DuxHuman 
DUX4L4double homeobox 4 like 4DuxHuman 
DUX4L5double homeobox 4 like 5DuxHuman 
DUX4L6double homeobox 4 like 6DuxHuman 
DUX4L7double homeobox 4 like 7DuxHuman 
DUX4L8double homeobox 4 like 8DuxHuman 
DUX4L9double homeobox 4 like 9DuxHuman 
DUXAdouble homeobox ADuxHuman 
DUXAP1double homeobox A pseudogene 1DuxHuman 
DUXAP10double homeobox A pseudogene 10DuxHuman 
DUXAP2double homeobox A pseudogene 2DuxHuman 
DUXAP3double homeobox A pseudogene 3DuxHuman 
DUXAP4double homeobox A pseudogene 4DuxHuman 
DUXAP5double homeobox A pseudogene 5DuxHuman 
DUXAP6double homeobox A pseudogene 6DuxHuman 
DUXAP7double homeobox A pseudogene 7DuxHuman 
DUXAP8double homeobox A pseudogene 8DuxHuman 
DUXAP9double homeobox A pseudogene 9DuxHuman 
DUXBdouble homeobox BDuxHuman 
DUXBLRDuxbl remnantsDuxHuman 
LOC100131369double homeobox, 4-like pseudogeneDuxHuman 
LOC100506764double homeobox protein 4-likeDuxHuman