|Families List Genes List|
The Dux (double homeobox) family is complex. An unknown, and variable, number of human Dux sequences are part of a tandemly repeated 3.3 kb DNA element that has become incorporated into heterochromatin and some euchromation (Holland et al. 2007). Many Dux sequences are also part of repeated DNA, for example 'DUX4' sequences at the polymorphic D4Z4 locus at 4q35 linked to facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (Gabrië et al. 1999, Wijmenga et al. 1993). There are additional cluster of DUX sequences on human chromosomes 4, 10, Y and some dispersed loci (Zhong and Holland 2011). Most Dux sequences in euchromatin possess two tandem homeobox sequences, although some have lost one of the pair. Most the above sequences lack introns in the homeobox, and there is limited evidence for function through transcription and translation (although DUX4 sequences at the D4Z4 locus show sequence conservation and the orthologous gene cluster is transcribed in mouse; Clapp et al. 2007). True intron-containing Dux genes have been identified in the human genome, DUXA and DUXB (Booth and Holland 2007, Holland et al. 2007), while some other mammals have DUXC and DUXBL, though lost from human (Clapp et al. 2007). There are traces of a DUXBL pseudogene in humans (Leidenroth and Hewitt 2010; Zhong and Holland 2011). Mouse has lost DUXA, DUXB and DUXC. No Dux sequences are found in amphioxus or Drosophila.|
Booth HAF, Holland PWH (2007) Gene 387:7-14.
Clapp J et al. (2007) Am J Hum Genet. 81: 264-279.
Gabriëls J et al. (1999) Gene 236:25-32.
Holland PWH, Booth HAF, Bruford EA (2007) BMC Biology 5:47.
Leidenroth A, Hewitt JE (2010) BMC Evol Biol 10:364.
Wijmenga C et al. (1993) Neuromusc Aborted 3:487-491.
Zhong YF, Holland PWH (2011) BMC Evol Biol 11: 169, 204.
|Families List of Class PRD :|