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PRD Class
Families List  Genes List
The PRD class is the second largest of the homeobox gene classes in animal genomes; like the ANTP class these genes have only been found in animals. The PRD class derives its name from (but is not an abbreviation for) the Paired (Prd) gene of Drosophila. PRD class genes are defined phylogenetically - they form a robust monophyletic group in evolutionary trees of homeodomain sequences. The PRD homeobox class overlaps with the Pax gene class - some but not all Pax genes are in the PRD homeobox gene class, while the vast majority of PRD class homeobox genes are not Pax genes.

There are 9 Pax genes in the human or mouse genomes, defined by presence of a 128 amino acid Paired domain, and of these 7 are members of the PRD homeobox class by virtue of possessing a homeobox: complete homeobox for PAX3, 4, 6 and 7; partial homeobox for PAX2, 5 and 8 (the two human Pax genes lacking a homeobox entirely are PAX1 and PAX9; these are not included in this database). In addition to these 7 homeobox-containing Pax genes, there are a further 43 PRD class genes in the human genome. These 50 genes can be divided into 31 gene families. There are also 24 human pseudogenes generated from these genes, plus an unknown number of DUX repetitive sequences (Holland et al. 2007).

In amphioxus there are 5 Pax genes, and of these 3 are have a partial or complete homeobox (Pax-1/9 and Pon are the two lacking homeobox sequence and therefore excluded; Pon is present in Drosophila and amphioxus, but not human). In addition to these genes, there are a further 27 PRD class genes in amphioxus (Takatori et al. 2008).

Reference(s):
Holland PWH, Booth HAF, Bruford EA (2007) BMC Biology 5:47.
Takatori N et al (2008) Dev Genes Evol 218: 579-590.
 
Families List of Class PRD :
Alx(3)Argfx(3)Arx(1)Dmbx(1)Dprx(8)Drgx(1)Dux(36)Esx(1)Gsc(2)
Hesx(1)Hopx(1)Isx(1)Leutx(1)Mix(1)Nobox(1)Otp(1)Otx(4)Pax2/5/8(3)
Pax3/7(2)Pax4/6(2)Phox(2)Pitx(3)Prop(1)Prrx(2)Rax(2)Rhox(3)Sebox(1)
Shox(2)Tprx(5)Uncx(1)Vsx(2)      
 
Loci in PRD of Human back to top..
Symbol/LocusNameFamilyOrganismRegulator
ALX1aristaless-like homeobox 1AlxHuman 
ALX3aristaless-like homeobox 3AlxHuman 
ALX4aristaless-like homeobox 4AlxHuman 
ARGFXarginine-fifty homeoboxArgfxHuman 
ARGFXP1arginine-fifty homeobox pseudogene 1ArgfxHuman 
ARGFXP2arginine-fifty homeobox pseudogene 2ArgfxHuman 
ARXaristaless related homeoboxArxHuman 
CRXcone-rod homeoboxOtxHuman 
DMBX1diencephalon/mesencephalon homeobox 1DmbxHuman 
DPRXdivergent-paired related homeoboxDprxHuman 
DPRXP1divergent-paired related homeobox pseudogene 1DprxHuman 
DPRXP2divergent-paired related homeobox pseudogene 2DprxHuman 
DPRXP3divergent-paired related homeobox pseudogene 3DprxHuman 
DPRXP4divergent-paired related homeobox pseudogene 4DprxHuman 
DPRXP5divergent-paired related homeobox pseudogene 5DprxHuman 
DPRXP6divergent-paired related homeobox pseudogene 6DprxHuman 
DPRXP7divergent-paired related homeobox pseudogene 7DprxHuman 
DRGXdorsal root ganglia homeoboxDrgxHuman 
DUX4double homeobox, 4DuxHuman 
Dux4l DuxHuman 
DUX4L10double homeobox 4 like 10DuxHuman 
DUX4L11double homeobox 4 like 11DuxHuman 
DUX4L12double homeobox 4 like 12DuxHuman 
DUX4L13double homeobox 4 like 13DuxHuman 
DUX4L14double homeobox 4 like 14DuxHuman 
DUX4L15double homeobox 4 like 15DuxHuman 
DUX4L16double homeobox 4 like 16DuxHuman 
DUX4L17double homeobox 4 like 17DuxHuman 
DUX4L18double homeobox 4 like 18DuxHuman 
DUX4L19double homeobox 4 like 19DuxHuman 
DUX4L2double homeobox 4 like 2DuxHuman 
DUX4L20double homeobox 4 like 20DuxHuman 
DUX4L3double homeobox 4 like 3DuxHuman 
DUX4L4double homeobox 4 like 4DuxHuman 
DUX4L5double homeobox 4 like 5DuxHuman 
DUX4L6double homeobox 4 like 6DuxHuman 
DUX4L7double homeobox 4 like 7DuxHuman 
DUX4L8double homeobox 4 like 8DuxHuman 
DUX4L9double homeobox 4 like 9DuxHuman 
DUXAdouble homeobox ADuxHuman 
DUXAP1double homeobox A pseudogene 1DuxHuman 
DUXAP10double homeobox A pseudogene 10DuxHuman 
DUXAP2double homeobox A pseudogene 2DuxHuman 
DUXAP3double homeobox A pseudogene 3DuxHuman 
DUXAP4double homeobox A pseudogene 4DuxHuman 
DUXAP5double homeobox A pseudogene 5DuxHuman 
DUXAP6double homeobox A pseudogene 6DuxHuman 
DUXAP7double homeobox A pseudogene 7DuxHuman 
DUXAP8double homeobox A pseudogene 8DuxHuman 
DUXAP9double homeobox A pseudogene 9DuxHuman 
DUXBdouble homeobox BDuxHuman 
DUXBLRDuxbl remnantsDuxHuman 
ESX1extraembryonic, spermatogenesis, homeobox 1 homolog (mouse)EsxHuman 
GSCgoosecoid homeoboxGscHuman 
GSC2goosecoid homeobox 2GscHuman 
HESX1HESX homeobox 1HesxHuman 
HOPXHOP homeoboxHopxHuman 
ISXintestine-specific homeoboxIsxHuman 
LEUTXleucine-twenty homeoboxLeutxHuman 
LOC100131369double homeobox, 4-like pseudogeneDuxHuman 
LOC100506764double homeobox protein 4-likeDuxHuman 
MIXL1Mix paired-like homeoboxMixHuman 
NOBOXNOBOX oogenesis homeoboxNoboxHuman 
OTPorthopedia homologOtpHuman 
OTX1orthodenticle homeobox 1OtxHuman 
OTX2orthodenticle homeobox 2OtxHuman 
OTX2P1orthodenticle homeobox 2 pseudogeneOtxHuman 
PAX2paired box gene 2Pax2/5/8Human 
PAX3paired box 3Pax3/7Human 
PAX4paired box gene 4Pax4/6Human 
PAX5paired box gene 5Pax2/5/8Human 
PAX6paired box 6Pax4/6Human 
PAX7paired box 7Pax3/7Human 
PAX8paired box gene 8Pax2/5/8Human 
PHOX2Apaired-like homeobox 2aPhoxHuman 
PHOX2Bpaired-like homeobox 2bPhoxHuman 
PITX1pituitary homeobox 1PitxHuman 
PITX2pituitary homeobox 2PitxHuman 
PITX3pituitary homeobox 3PitxHuman 
PROP1DROP paired-like homeobox 1PropHuman 
PRRX1paired related homeobox 1PrrxHuman 
PRRX2paired related homeobox 2PrrxHuman 
RAXretina and anterior neural fold homeoboxRaxHuman 
RAX2retina and anterior neural fold homeobox 2RaxHuman 
RHOXF1Rhox homeobox family, member 1RhoxHuman 
RHOXF2Rhox homeobox family, member 2RhoxHuman 
RHOXF2BRhox homeobox family, member 2BRhoxHuman 
SEBOXSEBOX homeoboxSeboxHuman 
SHOXshort stature homeoboxShoxHuman 
SHOX2short stature homeobox 2ShoxHuman 
TPRX1tetra-peptide repeat homeobox 1TprxHuman 
TPRX1P1tetra-peptide repeat homeobox 1 pseudogene 1TprxHuman 
TPRX1P2tetra-peptide repeat homeobox 1 pseudogene 2TprxHuman 
TPRX2Ptetra-peptide repeat homeobox 2 pseudogeneTprxHuman 
TPRXLtetra-peptide repeat homeobox-likeTprxHuman 
UNCXUNC homeoboxUncxHuman 
VSX1visual system homeobox 1VsxHuman 
VSX2visual system homeobox 2VsxHuman